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Sign in to use this feature. This article has no associated abstract. No keywords specified fix it. No categories specified categorize this paper. For the sake of clarity, a distinction will be made at this point between compounds and simplicia. Compounds In Greek, compounds are a very frequent source of personal names. The possible combinations of first and second element of compounded names are practically unlimited, whence the amazing variety of possible values.
Within the first group some examples speak for themselves, e. This may happen either directly or through formal Greek replacements for a collocation inherited from IE, e. A perfect Vedic phraseological parallel is offered by RV V 7. The same may apply to Myc. In Mycenaean we also find names which are anything but heroic. Some are highly expressive; cf. In that case Myc.
[John Chadwick, Lydia Baumbach] the Mycenaean Greece
Simplicia Simplicia common nouns or adjectives used as personal names are mostly nicknames in origin and denote, as a rule, noticeable characteristics which are rarely positive. They must have been first used ad personam, i. Whether these names reflect mythical figures in Mycenaean times must remain an open question. Personal names and Mycenaean society It is likely that the autochthonous names of slaves and foreigners were replaced by nick names, especially ethnics, devised first by the owner or by the community, as was sometimes the case in first millennium Greece.
We may even assume that the same was true for people who had only a modest status in society. But this can hardly be more than a general tendency. But it is also true that names of this type were also borne by smiths at Pylos, cf. However bones of domestic poultry have been found at the level of Middle Bronze Age at Lerna in the Argolis, cf. This evidence strongly sug- gests that there was no clear-cut distribution of name type according to social classes in the Mycenaean world, and that high-level names were in fact com- mon among the lower classes.
As a rule the name of the father does not occur after the name of persons of low status. Names of oxen In the Knossos Ch tablets names are given to some oxen as horses are given a name in Homer. Identification, interpretation A relatively large number of gods and goddesses are attested as recipients of offerings in Linear B texts,53 e. In any case it is not always clear whether the recipient is a god, a hero or a person i.
Documents in Mycenaean Greek
For the names dat. In my opinion, di-ri-mi-jo is a minor god, predecessor of and later absorbed by Apollo.
However, caution is very necessary. Aravantinos, L. Godart and A. On the assumption that their content is fully religious, the editors believe that they may recognize Zeus in the dat. For this reason alone the divine triad may simply have to vanish. It must be stressed, moreover, that, even if the general context is religious, o-po-re-i, ma-ka and ko-wa could designate persons.
On the other hand, an interpretation in non- religious terms is perfectly possible.
Mycenae | Definition of Mycenae at keestaikrypda.tk
TOP, especially, ff. On month names cf.
In Mycenaean there is no clear instance of a specifying or descriptive epiclesis which replaces the name of the god it belongs to. Epicleses may or may not have an alphabetic Greek match. Moreover, the line between divine name and epiclesis is not always clear-cut historically: one form can be a divine name in Linear B and an epiclesis in alphabetic Greek. It follows that pre-Greek theonyms and epiclesis are very frequently attested in the Linear B tablets.
This holds true for the major deities which are all attested in Mycenaean, with the exception of Apollo, Aphrodite, Demeter, and Athena, cf. However, it must be stressed that a given god could be older than its attested name, as this could have replaced or be a remodelling of an older name either IE or pre-Greek. Formal aspects For the most part, religious names are very difficult to interpret from the etymological point of view.
Moreover, those which are interpretable do not allow us to recognize specific suffixes used for divine names. Some of the names that have exact equivalents in the first millennium can be interpreted, to different degrees, in terms of Greek, with or without recogniz- able IE etymology. Iuppiter, Diespiter cf.
Other names may or may not be Greek. As to a-re dat. The interpretation of Lat. Iuno goes back to RIX On the other hand, the etymology of the names of several well-known Olym- pic gods remains totally obscure. This is the case with Artemis gen. Artimus and Hephaistos cf. It is not clear whether the GN e-ne-si-da-o-ne dat. Mycenaean religious names not attested the first millennium Among the divine names and epithets not directly attested in alphabetic Greek, some, as mentioned above, can be understood in Greek terms do-po-ta, ti-ri-se-ro-e.
Other attempts at identification are more or less plausible. In fact, Hom. Non liquet. As mentioned already, the names and the status of many other divine or deified recipients of offerings remain unidentifiable and defy linguistic inter- pretation. Some of them are clearly pre-Greek, e.
This suggests the existence of close contacts among the Mycenaean kingdoms and between them and other regions of the Mediterra- nean. For Thebes TOP, ff. Identification, interpretation It goes without saying that, before we try to compare a Mycenaean place name with a form place name, noun or adjective of first millennium Greek, we must be certain that the word in question is a real toponym.
The following features may help in the identification of place names: a Contextual criteria, e. The case endings loca- tive plur. We can also identify in the same manner place names which remain completely obscure, cf. Accordingly, an ethnic can allow us to reconstruct a place name, even if this is not attested in Linear B, e.
In the same way we may identify place names which have no obvious match in the first millennium: thus the ethnics u-de-wi-ni-jo[ and a-pe-ke-i-jo PY make clear that u-de-wi-ne and a-pe-ke-e are place names — which is confirmed by the texts in which they occur. Just as in the epigraphical texts of classical Greece, it is not always easy to distinguish between a place name proper and a common noun or an epithet used to refer to, and describe, a place. This is e. We must stress at this point that the formal identity of a place name attested in Linear B e.
On the other hand, a name can be replaced by another e.