Manual Regulated Power Supplies

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A sensing circuit continuously monitors the output voltage, adjusting the switching duty cycle to maintain a constant voltage output. Switching power supplies are more efficient than series-regulated ones because little power is dissipated in a switching transistor.

Switching supplies are physically smaller than series-regulated types because components operating at the switching frequency typically 20 kHz are much smaller than those used in a nonswitching supply operating at 50 to 60 Hz.

Linear Regulated vs. Switch Mode Power Supply

These power supplies are well suited where compactness, efficiency, and moderately accurate regulation is required. But switching-type power supplies are electrically and sometimes audibly noisy.

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Thus, they are unsuitable for powering circuits that are sensitive to electrical noise unless those circuits are filtered and shielded. Finally, switching power supplies are generally more costly than other power supplies. Switching frequencies are continually rising. The advantages of higher frequencies include reduced component size, lower ripple voltage, higher power per unit volume, and quiet operation. While 20 to 30 kHz seems to be the most widely used frequency today, to kHz are also being used.

And some PWM-type integrated circuits are capable of handling switching frequencies to 1 MHz and more. These chips sport a variety of features.


Many of the features protect the chip and power supply from start-up current surges, overvoltage, and short-circuit faults. Custom ICs and microprocessors are now being built into more complex power supplies, especially those that interface with host computers through standard buses. Supply makers say that options quickly become standard features as users demand better products.

And as systems become more complex, standard features become basic necessities. Overvoltage protection, adjustable voltage, and active soft-start are among the most common capabilities found on today's power supplies which were once options. Additional options that are candidates for standardization include specialized EMI filters, power fail and power valid indicators, and current balance circuits for proportional load sharing.

Switching is typically implemented in one of three ways. The first is a flyback circuit configuration. It is suitable up to W and is the most economical of the three types because it contains the fewest number of parts.

Switching-Regulated Power Supplies

A second is called a forward converter. It is most cost effective between 80 and W. The third is a more complex type that comes either as a center-tapped push-pull circuit or a half-bridge push-pull circuit. These two are widely used in the to W range.

An off-line switcher rectifies the incoming ac main voltage and is considered a dc-to-dc converter. Rectified and filtered Vac produces about Vdc; therefore, some converter designs work from Vdc input as well as Vac.


The input rectifiers become steering diodes that allow either input lead to be positive or negative. Switchers that operate directly off the mains require an input current surge-limiting circuit. Since there is no transformer impedance to help limit current charging the filter capacitors, peak currents can be high enough to destroy the rectifiers.

In its basic configuration, the flyback switcher contains one transformer, one pulse-width-modulator circuit, one power transistor, and one output diode. The transformer steps down voltage, provides line isolation, and acts as an inductor. When the power transistor switches on, current in the primary stores energy in the transformer core. The polarity is such that the diodes do not conduct. When the transistor switches off, the voltage polarity reverses and flies back, passing current through the output diode to the output capacitor and load. The amount of energy stored in the core is varied by the on time of the PWM and transistor.

As power increases over W, the flyback transformer size increases rapidly because of increased current requirements. Also, the saw-tooth waveform produced by the flyback circuit needs twice the peak current for a given power level compared to a forward converter. Over W, the maximum allowable peak current for the flyback transistor occurs quickly. It filter out AC voltage and allows only DC voltage.

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The purpose of using voltage regulators is to make a perfect straight line DC. The voltage regulators will also maintain constant DC voltage without any deviation. The LED is used for indication purpose. Question 1 year ago. Question 1 year ago on Step 2. Question 1 year ago on Step 6. Hi raj, in the schematic digram that you provided isnt there a short for between first and second pin with the parallel lines running to pin 1 and pin 2 see the attached image.

keestaikrypda.tk: Power Supplies - Lab Instruments & Equipment: Industrial & Scientific

Answer 1 year ago. Because i have seen voltage regulators upto maximum of 24 V it is LM What else would need to be changed -Maybe a transformer? Reply 2 years ago. Yes you should change the transformer to You need to add heat sink to and because the output voltage of bridge is going to be 32V if you use 16Volt transformer.

The voltage regulator is going to be heated up. So to dissipate heat and to protect voltage regulator,you need to add heat sink. By Rajkumar Twitter Follow. More by the author:. About: iam a B. E Electronics and Communication Engineer. I have great interest on electronics. I love my college life. Even though there are many sadness in my life. I find joy in making instructables. Add Teacher Note.