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Study on hydrogen adsorption and desorption using large-scale cryogenic molecular sieve bed. High-heat flux tests of fusion materials with stationary plasma in the PLM device. Recent advances in nuclear instrumentation and their application to fusion blankets.

Conceptual design of a breeding blanket for laser fusion power plants with tunable tritium breeding ratio TBR capabilities. Compatibility of advanced tritium breeders and neutron multipliers. Standardization of Eurofer material, a first step toward industrialization. On the role of integrated computer modelling in fusion technology. Ongoing activities and future directions for the U. Approach on improving reliability of DEMO technical solutions.

  • Integrated Models in Production Planning, Inventory, Quality, and Maintenance.
  • No easy day : the autobiography of a Navy SEAL.
  • The Anomeric Effect and Associated Stereoelectronic Effects.
  • Radiation Effects In The Stainless Steel Primary Coolant Supply Adapter .
  • Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version..
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The issue of tritium in DEMO coolant and mitigation strategies. Spagnulo, Gandolfo Alessandro. European DEMO first wall shaping and limiters design and analysis status. The frontier investigations of the liquid breeders using Oroshhi-2 heat and mass transfer loop. ARC reactor: radioactive safety assessment and preliminary environmental impact study. Construction and inactive commissioning of a high throughput micro-channel reactor for tritiated heavy water production. Tritium decontamination scenario from plasma facing materials under vacuum condition in DEMO.

Exploring the adoption of mobile Augmented Reality for assistance in Fusion plant repair and maintenance. Diffusion bonding experiments of 1. Pre-experiment analysis for permeation of multi-component hydrogen isotopes through metals in non-steady-state. European DEMO divertor cassette: Study of an alternative path of the cooling pipes inside the cassette body. Nuclear analyses in support of the conceptual design of the DTT tokamak neutron diagnostics.

4.2 Description of system

Nuclear analysis and design of a double beam light ion accelerator facility. The simulation of the quasi-snowflake divertor configuration with the EAST new upgrade lower tungsten divertor shape. Design and verification of a non-self-supported cryostat for the DEMO tokamak.

Shielding concept and neutronic assessment of the DEMO lower remote handling and pumping ports. Thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of DTT first wall concepts during normal and plasma limited operations. Diffusion barrier nanoceramic coatings for future generation nuclear systems. On the numerical assessment of the thermal-hydraulic operating map of the DEMO divertor plasma facing components cooling circuit.

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version.

Direct observation of hydrogen permeation through grain boundaries in tungsten. Characterization of deuterium and impurity co-deposition on tungsten divertor tiles adopted from KSTAR tokamak by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

Overview of zinc addition in the Farley 2 reactor | Water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems 7

Plasma-facing components damage and its effects on plasma performance in EAST tokamak. Impact of the interlayer thickness on the thermal fatigue performance and manufacturing technology of W-monoblock targets fabricated by means of HRP. Testing of ceramic porous membranes for separation of Plasma Enhancement Gases. Development of small specimen test technologies on joints of fusion structural materials in SWIP. Development and high-heat-flux test results of a DEMO divertor target concept with a thick graded bond interlayer.

Magnetic domain structure of an FeCr alloy damaged by ion irradiation under the influence of an external magnetic field. Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures. Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment. This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps.

Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste. Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system. This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere.

Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended. Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use. Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances.

General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems. Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards. Such guards are particularly important for pumps installed on portable carts or tops of benches where laboratory personnel might accidentally entangle clothing or fingers in the moving belt or wheels. Glassware under vacuum is at risk for implosion, which could result in flying glass.

For more information about working under vacuum, see Chapter 4 , section 4. The potential hazards posed by laboratory refrigerators include release of vapors from the contents, the possible presence of incompatible chemicals, and spillage. As general precautions, laboratory refrigerators should be placed against fire-resistant walls, should have heavy-duty power cords, and preferably should be protected by their own circuit breaker.

Enclose the contents of a laboratory refrigerator in unbreakable secondary containment. Because there is almost never a satisfactory way to continuously vent the interior atmosphere of a refrigerator, any vapors escaping from vessels placed in one will accumulate in the refrigerated space and gradually be absorbed into the surrounding insulation.

Thus, the atmosphere in a refrigerator could contain an explosive mixture of air and the vapor of a flammable substance or a dangerously high concentration of the vapor of a toxic substance or both. The impact of exposure to toxic substances can be aggravated when a person inserts his or her head inside a refrigerator to search for a particular sample. Placing potentially explosive see Chapter 6 , sections 6. C and 6. G or highly toxic substances see Chapter 6 , sections 6. D and 6. E in a laboratory refrigerator is strongly discouraged.

As noted in Chapter 6 , section 6. C , laboratory refrigerators are never used to store food or beverages for human consumption. Add permanent labels warning against the storage of food and beverages to all laboratory refrigerators and freezers. Potential ignition sources, e.

Nuclear Fission Reactors

Use explosion-proof refrigerators for the storage of flammable materials; they are sold for this purpose and are labeled and hardwired. Only refrigerators that have been UL- or FM Factory Mutual -approved for flammable storage should be used for this purpose. A labeled hardwired explosion-proof refrigerator is mandatory for a renovated or new laboratory where flammable materials need refrigeration. Because of the expense of an explosion-proof refrigerator, a modified sparkproof refrigerator is sometimes found in older laboratories and laboratories using very small amounts of flammable materials.

However, a modified sparkproof refrigerator cannot meet the standards of an explosion-proof refrigerator. Where they exist, a plan to phase them out is recommended. Permanently attach a prominent sign warning against the storage of flammable substances to the door of an unmodified refrigerator. Frost-free refrigerators are not suitable for laboratory use, owing to the problems associated with attempts to modify them.

Many of these refrigerators have a drain tube or hole that carries water and any flammable material present to an area adjacent to the compressor and thus present a spark hazard. The electric heaters used to defrost the freezing coils are also a potential spark hazard see section 7. To ensure its effective functioning, defrost a freezer manually when ice builds up. Never place uncapped containers of chemicals in a refrigerator. Caps provide a vapor-tight seal to prevent a spill if the container is tipped over.


Aluminum foil, corks, corks wrapped with aluminum foil, and glass stoppers do not meet this criterion, and their use is discouraged. The most satisfactory temporary seals are normally screw caps lined with either a conical polyethylene or a Teflon insert. The best containers for samples that are to be stored for longer periods of time are sealed nitrogen-filled glass ampoules. At a minimum, use catch pans for secondary containment. Careful labeling of samples placed in refrigerators and freezers with both the contents and the owner's name is essential. Do not use water-soluble ink; labels should be waterproof or covered with transparent tape.

Storing samples with due consideration of chemical compatibility is important in these often small crowded spaces. The stirring and mixing devices commonly found in laboratories include stirring motors, magnetic stirrers, shakers, small pumps for fluids, and rotary evaporators for solvent removal.