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Subsequently, they blow through much of their available weaponry, technology, and crew not to mention movie runtime hunting The Meg. In a similar whale of a tale, a supersized great white shark terrorizes a fictional resort island with its Jaws …until the protagonist sends it back in pieces to the watery depths from whence it came. While shark attacks on humans are much, much rarer than the film would have you believe, the surge in dorsal fins spotted by beachgoers is worrying visitors and residents alike.

What, exactly, is bringing a surplus of great whites so close to shore?

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A great white shark. Image by Olga Ernst — Own work. The long answer is a little more complicated: From the s to the s, New England fishermen saw seals as a threat to the fishing industry because the seals were picking off cod. People hunted the seals in great numbers until the seal population diminished from the area. Then, in the s, the Marine Mammal Protection Act made it illegal to kill marine mammals, so the seal population returned…and so have the sharks.

Some people are ready to cull the seals, others want to cull the sharks, and suggested culling methods for either species could make the problem worse though none involve the cinematic action deployed in summer blockbusters. So, how can we predict which options will have the desired outcomes and which might have unintended consequences? One way is by applying mathematics to biology….

List of monster movies - Wikipedia

Thomas Woolley and Prof. Philip Maini turned to thrilling creature features. This canonical evidence guided them through determining parameters for their simulations, as we will see later on. Although the massive scale and suspension of disbelief needed for this scenario make it fun to explore, the basics revolve around what is already found in nature: species dynamics. For the monster situation, the biologists looked at real-life examples of competition between species, predator-prey interactions, and ad hoc eradication attempts by humans.

Officially called the Lotka—Volterra equations , these equations mathematically describe the way two species interact with one as the predator and the other the prey, as well has how their populations change over time. Using the predator-prey interaction problem as a basis for the Kaiju scenario, the researchers began their calculations…. Before getting into eradication strategies, the biologists defined parameters for the Kaijus to predict the population size based on the following main criteria:.

Kaiju canon indicates that not only are these creatures able to reproduce but also that they fight each other when their population is too large and they must compete for resources. Therefore, the scientists used a logistic growth differential equation for the interaction part of the model.

The top 100 TV and movie monsters

In real life, this type of equation is used for populations ranging from yeast to wolves. For movement, the scientists determined that the beasts would be able to go from ocean to land in less than a day, based on such abilities in the popular films about them, and calculated how fast they move based on the hour time period it takes to go from the Pacific Rim to Japan about a mile distance. Kaijus, they found, can swim at about 40 mph. As forces of nature, Kaijus tend to move randomly from their origin point to the nearest landmass.

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They also factored in the assumption that the monsters can change direction, especially when encountering a boundary. In a worst-case scenario if, say, aliens sent the monsters to destroy us and kept on sending more of them , the boundary condition would be classed as a source, which the scientists also considered in their equations.

As for initial distribution, since the source of the monster is unknown, the scientists assume the worst: The monsters would run amok on land at carrying capacity, which is the maximum density of life that a region can support. A theatrical poster for a monster movie. This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between and and although there may or may not have been a copyright notice, the copyright was not renewed. Unless its author has been dead for the required period, it is copyrighted in the countries or areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada 50 pma , Mainland China 50 pma, not Hong Kong or Macao , Germany 70 pma , Mexico pma , Switzerland 70 pma , and other countries with individual treaties.

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Image via Wikimedia Commons. Now that we know the parameters for their population, which common tactic used in the movies is most effective for getting rid of them? Could it be deploying Jaegers or creating a Kaiju of our own?

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The answer, he says, depends on the area of the population. It also depends on where that population is located: Are the monsters taking over an island, or spreading out over a continent? In order to cover their bases, they decided on three different sizes of land to test each strategy in their simulations: the United Kingdom as the small size, Japan as the middle size, and the Americas North and South as the largest landmass.

The 50 Scariest Monsters In Movie History

Perhaps this is why so many movies about giant creatures come from Japan, the mathematical biologists suggest. To see how the Jaeger deployment or Kaiju creation would play out for each of the three regions, the team set up the model and equations required, such as nondimensionalization to predict the domain size, stability analysis, and diffusion-driven instability. Plus, the software provides quality assurance. The first strategy the mathematicians proposed is to deploy giant robots to combat the Kaijus wherever they pop up. Monster movie canon has proven that Jaegers are sturdy and powerful enough to terminate many Kaijus before they fall, and oftentimes one Jaeger is deployed at a time to fend off several monsters.

Although they are expensive, hard to construct, and dangerously nuclear, Jaegers can be fully controlled, which makes this option more viable than creating a different monster under certain circumstances. The robots were modeled as point sinks and fixed where they would patrol to the boundaries of the solution space, in order to minimize human fatalities and see how long it would take to wait for monster encounters, as well as to pinpoint robot location.

After running the Jaeger simulation, the results show that due to the limitations of Jaegers being dispatched as single fighters fending off many monsters , they would only be able to defend a small country, such as the UK. As shown below, once Jaegers are deployed, they can drastically reduce the Kaiju population in about 24 hours. The lighter shaded areas are high population density and the darker areas are the low population density of Kaijus.

The scale at the color bar at the top is in thousands of tons. Image courtesy Thomas Woolley. When it comes to a mid-sized country like Japan, the Jaegers are stretched more thinly. If only given 24 hours, they can still take out a lot of Kaijus, but not completely. If given 70 hours, however, they can reduce the Kaiju population to zero.

The density of Kaijus over time in Japan with Jaegers posted in the points indicated. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Bloody Disgusting! Yeaworth Jr. Exists — Dread Central". Sharks: What's Scarier? Nightwolves Sees a Poster — Dread Central". Retrieved Exists — Bloody Disgusting".

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