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Patani probably rivals Kedah as among the oldest Malay states on the Peninsula. The lost Second Century kingdom of Langkasuka may have spanned the peninsula from Patani on the east coast, to northern Kedah on the west. Wu-pei-chih, certainly firmly places a Lang-hsi-chia to the south of Songkla Singora , up to the Patani River and the fabled spirit land of Lakawn Suka still features in the mythology of Patani Malays.

Patani was probably one of the Sri Vijayan empire's conquests and ' Ilangasoka, undaunted in fierce battles' was certainly recorded as one of Rajendra Cola's conquests in his raids into Southeast Asia into the empire in Patani is also probably one of the earliest Malay states to convert to Islam - certainly well before Melaka.

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The Hikayat Patani tells the story of its king Raja Phya Tu Nakpa who falls gravely ill, with no apparent cure to his ailment in sight. A holy man by the name of Syeikh Said claims he can cure the ruler but only if he promises to convert to Islam as soon as he is healthy. The desperate ruler promises to do so and, as a result, he makes a miraculous recovery.

However, he forgets his promise and falls ill, and again seeks the holy man's blessings. This happens three times - but he finally makes good on his promise the third time and becomes a Muslim, calling himself Sultan Ismail Shah. It is under Sultan Ismail Shah's reign that the state takes on the name 'Patani'. Seeking a location for a new capital, he comes across an ideal spot on the coast and exclaims to his followers 'Pantai Ini!

Another account says that he finds a farmer's hut at this spot and calls his capital 'Pak Tani' 'farmer'. This capital is thought to be in modern day Kampong Grisek Kru Se. Patani was certainly known to the Portuguese, who first visited the port in , with Godinho de Eredia going as far as describing 'Patane' as the first seat of the Malay Empire. Husna marked it as to-read Dec 28, Fadhel Muhammad marked it as to-read Jan 12, Astri marked it as to-read Feb 01, Tika Oktavianti marked it as to-read Feb 19, Ayudyahsafitri marked it as to-read Feb 20, Grandis W added it Feb 28, Rara Nollanzac payne marked it as to-read Mar 14, Azim Haziq added it Apr 08, Siti Maftukha marked it as to-read Apr 24, Tan Lim marked it as to-read Apr 25, Farhan Rosyid added it Apr 29, Eii Ebelzt marked it as to-read Apr 30, Gu Athoellah marked it as to-read May 02, Farah marked it as to-read May 24, Mohamad Nasir marked it as to-read Jul 17, Mujahid marked it as to-read Jul 20, Mrshuk marked it as to-read Oct 09, Putri Wijayanti marked it as to-read Nov 07, Kwon Sandara is currently reading it Mar 19, Nia Gamesty added it Nov 12, Gabriela marked it as to-read May 10, Nurul Afiqah marked it as to-read Jun 20, Ainunl marked it as to-read Jun 26, Waqiyuddin Abdullah marked it as to-read Nov 20, Andine added it Jan 06, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

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Siti Hawa binti Saleh. If we only lay clearly before your eyes, what is profitable and what is destructive, you will then know that the statutes of the heavenly dynasty cannot but be obeyed with fear and trembling! We find that your country is distant from us about sixty or seventy thousand miles, that your foreign ships come hither striving the one with the other for our trade, and for the simple reason of their strong desire to reap a profit. Now, out of the wealth of our Inner Land, if we take a part to bestow upon foreigners from afar, it follows, that the immense wealth which the said foreigners amass, ought properly speaking to be portion of our own native Chinese people.

By what principle of reason then, should these foreigners send in return a poisonous drug, which involves in destruction those very natives of China? Without meaning to say that the foreigners harbor such destructive intentions in their hearts, we yet positively assert that from their inordinate thirst after gain, they are perfectly careless about the injuries they inflict upon us!


And such being the case, we should like to ask what has become of that conscience which heaven has implanted in the breasts of all men? We have heard that in your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severitythis is a strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is to mankind. Since then you do not permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drug transferred to another country, and above all others, how much less to the Inner Land!

Of the products which China exports to your foreign countries, there is not one which is not beneficial to mankind in some shape or other. There are those which serve for food, those which are useful, and those which are calculated for re-sale; but all are beneficial.

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Has China we should like to ask ever yet sent forth a noxious article from its soil? Not to speak of our tea and rhubarb, things which your foreign countries could not exist a single day without, if we of the Central Land were to grudge you what is beneficial, and not to compassionate your wants, then wherewithal could you foreigners manage to exist? And further, as regards your woolens, camlets, and longells, were it not that you get supplied with our native raw silk, you could not get these manufactured! If China were to grudge you those things which yield a profit, how could you foreigners scheme after any profit at all?

On the other hand, the things that come from your foreign countries are only calculated to make presents of, or serve for mere amusement.

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It is quite the same to us if we have them, or if we have them not. If then these are of no material consequence to us of the Inner Land, what difficulty would there be in prohibiting and shutting our market against them? It is only that our heavenly dynasty most freely permits you to take off her tea, silk, and other commodities, and convey them for consumption everywhere, without the slightest stint or grudge, for no other reason, but that where a profit exists, we wish that it be diffused abroad for the benefit of all the earth! Your honorable nation takes away the products of our central land, and not only do you thereby obtain food and support for yourselves, but moreover, by re-selling these products to other countries you reap a threefold profit.

Now if you would only not sell opium, this threefold profit would be secured to you: how can you possibly consent to forgo it for a drug that is hurtful to men, and an unbridled craving after gain that seems to know no bounds! Let us suppose that foreigners came from another country, and brought opium into England, and seduced the people of your country to smoke it, would not you, the sovereign of the said country, look upon such a procedure with anger, and in your just indignation endeavor to get rid of it?

Now we have always heard that your highness possesses a most kind and benevolent heart, surely then you are incapable of doing or causing to be done unto another, that which you should not wish another to do unto you! We have at the same time heard that your ships which come to Canton do each and every of them carry a document granted by your highness' self, on which are written these words "you shall not be permitted to carry contraband goods;" this shows that the laws of your highness are in their origin both distinct and severe, and we can only suppose that because the ships coming here have been very numerous, due attention has not been given to search and examine; and for this reason it is that we now address you this public document, that you may clearly know how stern and severe are the laws of the central dynasty, and most certainly you will cause that they be not again rashly violated!

Moreover, we have heard that in London the metropolis where you dwell, as also in Scotland, Ireland, and other such places, no opium whatever is produced.

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It is only in sundry parts of your colonial kingdom of Hindostan, such as Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Patna, Malwa, Benares, Malacca, and other places where the very hills are covered with the opium plant, where tanks are made for the preparing of the drug; month by month, and year by year, the volume of the poison increases, its unclean stench ascends upwards, until heaven itself grows angry, and the very gods thereat get indignant! You, the queen of the said honorable nation, ought immediately to have the plant in those parts plucked up by the very root!

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Cause the land there to be hoed up afresh, sow in its stead the five grains, and if any man dare again to plant in these grounds a single poppy, visit his crime with the most severe punishment. By a truly benevolent system of government such as this, will you indeed reap advantage, and do away with a source of evil. Heaven must support you, and the gods will crown you with felicity!

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This will get for yourself the blessing of long life, and from this will proceed the security and stability of your descendants! In reference to the foreign merchants who come to this our central land, the food that they eat, and the dwellings that they abide in, proceed entirely from the goodness of our heavenly dynasty: the profits which they reap, and the fortunes which they amass, have their origin only in that portion of benefit which our heavenly dynasty kindly allots them: and as these pass but little of their time in your country, and the greater part of their time in our's, it is a generally received maxim of old and of modern times, that we should conjointly admonish, and clearly make known the punishment that awaits them.

Suppose the subject of another country were to come to England to trade, he would certainly be required to comply with the laws of England, then how much more does this apply to us of the celestial empire! Now it is a fixed statute of this empire, that any native Chinese who sells opium is punishable with death, and even he who merely smokes it, must not less die.

Pause and reflect for a moment: if you foreigners did not bring the opium hither, where should our Chinese people get it to re-sell? It is you foreigners who involve our simple natives in the pit of death, and are they alone to be permitted to escape alive? If so much as one of those deprive one of our people of his life, he must forfeit his life in requital for that which he has taken: how much more does this apply to him who by means of opium destroys his fellow-men? Does the havoc which he commits stop with a single life? Therefore it is that those foreigners who now import opium into the Central Land are condemned to be beheaded and strangled by the new statute, and this explains what we said at the beginning about plucking up the tree of evil, wherever it takes root, for the benefit of all nations.

We further find that during the second month of this present year, the superintendent of your honorable country, Elliot, viewing the law in relation to the prohibiting of opium as excessively severe, duly petitioned us, begging for "an extension of the term already limited, say five months for Hindostan and the different parts of India, and ten for England, after which they would obey and act in conformity with the new statute," and other words to the same effect.

Now we, the high commissioner and colleagues, upon making a duly prepared memorial to the great emperor, have to feel grateful for his extraordinary goodness, for his redoubled compassion. Any one who within the next year and a half may by mistake bring opium to this country, if he will but voluntarily come forward, and deliver up the entire quantity, he shall be absolved from all punishment for his crime. If, however, the appointed term shall have expired, and there are still persons who continue to bring it, then such shall be accounted as knowingly violating the laws, and shall most assuredly be put to death!

On no account shall we show mercy or clemency! This then may be called truly the extreme of benevolence, and the very perfection of justice! Our celestial empire rules over ten thousand kingdoms! Most surely do we possess a measure of godlike majesty which ye cannot fathom!

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Still we cannot bear to slay or exterminate without previous warning, and it is for this reason that we now clearly make known to you the fixed laws of our land. If the foreign merchants of your said honorable nation desire to continue their commercial intercourse, they then must tremblingly obey our recorded statutes, they must cut off for ever the source from which the opium flows, and on no account make an experiment of our laws in their own persons!

Let then your highness punish those of your subjects who may be criminal, do not endeavor to screen or conceal them, and thus you will secure peace and quietness to your possessions, thus will you more than ever display a proper sense of respect and obedience, and thus may we unitedly enjoy the common blessings of peace and happiness. What greater joy! What more complete felicity than this! Let your highness immediately, upon the receipt of this communication, inform us promptly of the state of matters, and of the measure you are pursuing utterly to put a stop to the opium evil.

Please let your reply be speedy. Do not on any account make excuses or procrastinate. A most important communication. We annex an abstract of the new law, now about to be put in force. The space of a year and a half is granted, within the which, if any one bringing opium by mistake, shall voluntarily step forward and deliver it up, he shall be absolved from all consequences of his crime.

US-Baptistenmissionar J. Newbold, T.