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Construction and working of following machines: Three-phase induction motor, Single-phase induction motor. Separately excited DC motor.


Synchronous generators. Types of Wires and Cables. Earthing — Types of earthing and its importance. Safety precautions for electrical appliances. Types of Batteries, Important Characteristics for Batteries. Elementary calculations for energy consumption. Basics of power factor improvement. More contact details. Basic Electrical Engineering Computer Engineering Courses Subject Detail. Teaching Scheme in Hours. First, we need to understand what Series and Parallel circuits mean. Series circuits are those which are connected in-line with the power source.

The current in series circuits is constant throughout but the voltage may vary. Parallel circuits are those which branch off from the power supply. The total current supplied from the power source is divided among each of the branches but voltage is common throughout. You have probably experienced the pain involved with installing Christmas lights only to realize none of them work.

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Cue Clark Griswold! There is probably one bulb out somewhere in the hundreds that you hung up.

More than likely it is because one of the lights decided to break or burn out and because they are wired in series the rest are now out as well. Since all of the lights are in-line with each other, if one goes out it causes an open circuit at that point. No current will flow to the other lights because of the open circuit path. Fortunately, a lot of the new light strands are wired in parallel. Therefore if one light goes out, then only that branch of the circuit will be out.

The open will be isolated to that branch and current will continue to the other lights in the strand, Joy…to… the…World!


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R1 represents the resistance value of the speaker and R2 shows the resistance value of the LEDs. What is the voltage supplied to the LEDs and to the speaker? First, we need to find the current in the loop once the belly is pressed and switch 1 S1 closes. The supply offers 5 amps of current but the circuit will only use what is demanded by the loads.

This circuit is known as a voltage divider circuit. The supply voltage was divided among the loads in proportion to the resistance each load carries. This law states that the algebraic sum of the voltages in a closed loop is always equal to zero. If we only knew the supply potential and the voltage drop of R1, we could use KVL to find the other voltage drop.

With KVL you have to follow the current path and use the polarities of the components shown. If current path is unknown you have to assume one.

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We will use the positive to negative clockwise path. KVL really comes in handy when there are multiple supplies in a loop or multiple loops. As mentioned previously, with parallel circuits the voltage across each branch will be equal to the supply voltage. First we need to find the total resistance in the circuit.

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In series circuits we would just add all of the resistance values together. In parallel, you have to add the reciprocals of all the resistance values together and then reciprocate back.

How ELECTRICITY works - working principle

High fives all around! One quick note, current will always try to take the path of least resistance.

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  4. I was taught to think that current flows much the same as water. If you have two channels in a river and one is partially blocked by logs, then most of the water will flow through the clear channel. Same is true with current.

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    In a parallel circuit, the branch with the least amount of blockage or resistance will receive the majority of the current. In our example both channels are partially blocked but the one that is most clear R2 will receive the most current. Pop Quiz, what if R2 was to short out? Well, in a short there is no resistance, so all of the current would flow though that branch.